On This Day in History: January 23, 

1933 – 20th Amendment of the Constitution ratified changing Inauguration Day for the President from 4 March to 20 January, 1964 – 24th Amendment of the Constitution ratified barring poll taxes for federal elections, 1968 – USS Pueblo and 83-man crew seized by North Korea in the Sea of Japan.

U. S. Presidents

Biographical sketches of the Presidents of the United States of America and views concerning their administrations.

Party Code: U = Unaffiliated; F = Federalist; DR = Democratic-Republican; W = Whig;                I = Independent; D = Democratic; R = Republican; (NU =

Presidential Oath of Office from the Constitution:

“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

To this George Washington added: “So help me God.” (Used ever since.)

Inauguration Day – 4 March

Period I: The Birth of the Two-Party System and the Jeffersonian Philosophy

1. George Washington (U, 30 April 1789-4 March 1797)
2. John Adams (F, 1797-1801)
3. Thomas Jefferson (DR, 1801-1809)
4. James Madison (DR, 1809-1817)
5. James Monroe (DR, 1817-1825)

Period II: The Election of 1824, the Split of the Democratic-Republican Party and the Birth of the Jacksonian Philosophy

6. John Quincy Adams (DR, 1825-1829)
7. Andrew Jackson (D, 1829-1837)
8. Martin Van Buren (D, 1837-1841)
9. William Henry Harrison (W, 1841- 4 April 1841 Died in Office)
10. John Tyler (W/I, 4 April 1841-1845)
11. James K. Polk (D, 1845-1849)
12. Zachary Taylor (W, 1849-9 July 1850 Died in Office)
13. Millard Fillmore (W, 9 July 1850-1853)
14. Franklin Pierce (D, 1853-1857)
15. James Buchanan (D, 1857-1861)

Period III: The 1860 Election, the Birth of the Republican Party and the Democratic Party of the Reconstruction Era

16. Abraham Lincoln (R/NU, 1861-15 April 1865 Assassinated)
17. Andrew Johnson (NU/D, 15 April 1865-1869)
18. Ulysses S. Grant (R, 1869-1877)
19. Rutherford B. Hayes (R, 1877-1881)
20. James A Garfield (R, 1881- 19 September 1881 Assassinated)
21. Chester A Arthur (R, 19 September 1881-1885)
22. Grover Cleveland (D, 1885-1889)
23. Benjamin Harrison (R, 1889-1893)
24. Grover Cleveland (D, 1893-1897)

Period IV: The 1896 Election and the Transition to Democratic Progressivism

25. William McKinley (R, 1897-24 September 1901 Assassinated)
26. Theodore Roosevelt (R, 14 September 1901-1909)
27. William Howard Taft (R, 1909-1913)
28. Woodrow Wilson (D, 1913-1921)
29. Warren G. Harding ( R, 1921-2 August 1923 Died in Office)
30. Calvin Coolidge (R, 2 August 1923-1929)
31. Herbert Hoover (R, 1929-1933)

Period V: The Election of 1932 and the Era of Democratic Social Justice

32. Franklin D. Roosevelt (D, 1933-12 April 1945 Died in Office)
33. Harry S Truman (D, 12 April 1945-20 January 1953)

Inauguration Day – 20 January (Changed by the Twentieth Amendment)

34. Dwight D. Eisenhower (R, 1953-1961)
35. John F. Kennedy (D, 1961-22 November 1963 Assassinated)
36. Lyndon B. Johnson (D, 22 November 1963-1969)
37. Richard Nixon (R, 1969-9 August 1974 Resigned)
38. Gerald Ford (R, 9 August 1974-1977)
39. Jimmy Carter (D, 1977-1981)
40. Ronald Reagan (R, 1981-1989)
41. George H. W. Bush (R, 1989-1993)
42. Bill Clinton (D, 1993-2001)
43. George W. Bush (R, 2001-2009)

Period VI: The Election of 2009 and the Transition to Democratic Socialism

44. Barack Obama (D, 2009-2017)
45. Donald Trump (R, 2017- 20xx)